segunda-feira, 22 de agosto de 2016

Texto de Espanhol - Ensino Médio - Trimestral de Agosto 2016

Prezados Alunos do Ensino Médio:
Conforme prometido, aqui estão os textos que serão utilizados na Prova Trimestral de Espanhol de Agosto de 2016.
Grato pela atenção.
Robson Gimenes, Prof.

En el segundo semestre de 2012, un caso raro ocurrido en España llamó la atención de todo el mundo. Una señora profesional en restauración de obras de arte intentó restaurar el reconocido eccehomo de la ciudad de Borja, pintado por Elías García Martínez, pintor español, y acabó por estropearlo. La imagen del eccehomo disforme corrió todo el mundo.  


En 1947, Christopher Isherwood, escritor británico que falleció en 1986, hizo un viaje a Latinoamérica acompañado del fotógrafo estadounidense William Caskey y escribió un diario ilustrado sobre los pueblos que visitó. El diario se transformó en un libro muy interesante titulado El cóndor y las vacas. 

  • 16 de enero. Hoy fuimos al Machu Picchu. [...] Las montañas están llenas de leyendas. Una de ellas es que a un indio se le perdió una vaca de su amo y estuvo buscándola en vano durante varios días. Por fin encontró un bosque en un valle muy alto y al entrar se le apareció un hombre muy extraño que le dijo: "Está prohibido pasar". "¿Ha visto a nuestra vaca?", le preguntó el indio. "Sí – respondió aquel extraño personaje –, la hemos visto, pero no la podrá encontrar. No se preocupe, llévele esto a su amo y lo perdonará". El extraño personaje le dio al indio una pequeña vaca hecha de oro puro. El indio regresó junto a su amo al mismo lugar al día siguiente, pero el bosque había desaparecido. Supongo que esa historia expresa la creencia india de que en alguna parte, y de alguna forma misteriosa, la civilización inca sobrevive, a la espera de que llegue el momento de manifestarse de nuevo.

Texto de Inglês - 1ª Série EM - Integrada de Agosto 2016

Prezados Alunos da 1ª Série do Ensino Médio:
Conforme prometido, aqui estão os textos que serão utilizados na Prova Integrada (Agosto).
Grato pela atenção.
Robson Gimenes, Prof.

Air Pollution

One of the formal definitions of air pollution is as follows – ‘The presence in the atmosphere of one or more contaminants in such quality and for such duration as is injurious, or tends to be injurious, to human health or welfare, animal or plant life.’ It is the contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances. Air pollution can cause health problems and it can also damage the environment and property. It has caused thinning of the protective ozone layer of the atmosphere, which is leading to climate change.
   Modernization and progress have led to air getting more and more polluted over the years. Industries, vehicles, increase in the population, and urbanization are some of the major factors responsible for air pollution. The following industries are among those that emit a great deal of pollutants into the air: thermal power plants, cement, steel, refineries, petro chemicals, and mines.
   Air pollution results from a variety of causes, not all of which are within human control. Dust storms in desert areas and smoke from forest fires and grass fires contribute to chemical and particulate pollution of the air. The source of pollution may be in one country but the impact of pollution may be felt elsewhere. The discovery of pesticides in Antarctica, where they have never been used, suggests the extent to which aerial transport can carry pollutants from one place to another. Probably the most important natural source of air pollution is volcanic activity, which at times pours great amounts of ash and toxic fumes into the atmosphere.
   Listed below are the major air pollutants and their sources.
   Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless gas that is produced by the incomplete burning of carbon-based fuels including petrol, diesel, and wood. It is also produced from the combustion of natural and synthetic products such as cigarettes. It lowers the amount of oxygen that enters our blood. It can slow our reflexes and make us confused and sleepy.
   Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the principle greenhouse gas emitted as a result of human activities such as the burning of coal, oil, and natural gases.
   Chloroflorocarbons (CFC) are gases that are released mainly from air-conditioning systems and refrigeration. When released into the air, CFCs rise to the stratosphere, where they come in contact with few other gases, which lead to a reduction of the ozone layer that protects the earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun.
   Lead is present in petrol, diesel, lead batteries, paints, hair dye products, etc. Lead affects children in particular. It can cause nervous system damage and digestive problems and, in some cases, cause cancer.
   Ozone occurs naturally in the upper layers of the atmosphere. This important gas shields the earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun. However, at the ground level, it is a pollutant with highly toxic effects. Vehicles and industries are the major source of ground-level ozone emissions. Ozone makes our eyes itch, burn, and water. It lowers our resistance to colds and pneumonia.
   Nitrogen oxide (Nox) causes smog and acid rain. It is produced from burning fuels including petrol, diesel, and coal. Nitrogen oxides can make children susceptible to respiratory diseases in winters.

Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation.
   The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes, "most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations," which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Natural phenomena such as solar variation combined with volcanoes have probably had a small warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950, but a cooling effect since 1950. The basic conclusions have been endorsed by at least 30 scientific societies and academies of science, including all of the national academies of science of the major industrialized countries. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists is the only scientific society that rejects these conclusions, and a few individual scientists also disagree with parts of them.
   Remaining scientific uncertainties include the exact degree of climate change expected in the future, and how changes will vary from region to region around the globe. There is ongoing political and public debate regarding what, if any, action should be taken to reduce or reverse future warming or to adapt to its expected consequences. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at combating greenhouse gas emissions.

Texto de Inglês - 2ª Série EM - Integrada de Agosto 2016

Prezados Alunos da 2ª Série do Ensino Médio:
Conforme prometido, aqui está o texto que será utilizado na Prova Integrada (Agosto).
Grato pela atenção.
Robson Gimenes, Prof.

Anabolic steroid use in adolescents and high schools

Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are extremely powerful drugs.  “Anabolic” means to grow and “androgenic,” pertains to the development of male characteristics.  AAS are a synthetic version of the body’s naturally occurring hormone testosterone, the same chemical responsible for male sexual traits and the fundamental component in muscle development.  AAS are used medically to boost testosterone in males whose natural production is insufficient, to block or eliminate estrogen production in females with breast or reproductive cancers, to aid in anemia, and to preserve lean body tissue in patients with immune system and muscle wasting diseases.  Although AAS usage has the potential for negative side effects, they are often outweighed by the benefits patients receive when administered under a physician’s care.
   Though most commonly seen in bodybuilding, AAS are also prevalent in non-bodybuilder circles when there is dissatisfaction with one’s physique, a desire to shed unwanted fat, or the need to gain additional muscle mass.  Jack is a member of a local health club and former football player at Virginia Tech who exclaims, “I wanted the body of a 25-year old pro athlete at eighteen years old.  What I didn’t understand was that at 18, I was still growing.”  A consistent steroid user throughout his high school and college careers, Jack was like many teenagers who seek chemical assistance in fulfilling social and athletic goals.  According to the Monitoring the Future Survey by The University of Michigan, in 2006, 2.7% of high school seniors reported they had tried steroids at least once in their lifetime.  The majority of those who fall victim to teenage steroid abuse are male athletes seeking to better their performance in sports, be more competitive in the pursuit of athletic scholarships, or to gain recognition outside of the arena.  Females as well as males have shockingly admitted trying steroids as early as age 11, and are said to most commonly do so for aesthetic purposes.

Texto de Inglês - 3ª Série EM - Integrada de Agosto 2016

Prezados Alunos da 3ª Série do Ensino Médio:
Conforme prometido, aqui está o texto que será utilizado na Prova Integrada (Agosto).
Grato pela atenção.
Robson Gimenes, Prof

Tarzan of the Apes

I had this story from one who had no business to tell it to me, or to any other. I may credit the seductive influence of an old vintage upon the narrator for the beginning of it, and my own skeptical incredulity during the days that followed for the balance of the strange tale.
   When my convivial host discovered that he had told me so much, and that I was prone to doubtfulness, his foolish pride assumed the task the old vintage had commenced, and so he unearthed written evidence in the form of a musty manuscript, and dry official records of the British Colonial Office to support many of the salient features of his remarkable narrative.
   I do not say the story is true, for I did not witness the happenings which it portrays, but the fact that in the telling of it to you I have taken fictitious names for the principal characters quite sufficiently evidences the sincerity of my own belief that it MAY be true.
   The yellow, mildewed pages of the diary of a man long dead, and the records of the Colonial Office dovetail perfectly with the narrative of my convivial host, and so I give you the story as I painstakingly pieced it out from these several various agencies.
   If you do not find it credible you will at least be as one with me in acknowledging that it is unique, remarkable, and interesting.
   From the records of the Colonial Office and from the dead man's diary we learn that a certain young English nobleman, whom we shall call John Clayton, Lord Greystoke, was commissioned to make a peculiarly delicate investigation of conditions in a British West Coast African Colony from whose simple native inhabitants another European power was known to be recruiting soldiers for its native army, which it used solely for the forcible collection of rubber and ivory from the savage tribes along the Congo and the Aruwimi. The natives of the British Colony complained that many of their young men were enticed away through the medium of fair and glowing promises, but that few if any ever returned to their families.
   The Englishmen in Africa went even further, saying that these poor blacks were held in virtual slavery, since after their terms of enlistment expired their ignorance was imposed upon by their white officers, and they were told that they had yet several years to serve.
   And so the Colonial Office appointed John Clayton to a new post in British West Africa, but his confidential instructions centred on a thorough investigation of the unfair treatment of black British subjects by the officers of a friendly European power. Why he was sent, is, however, of little moment to this story, for he never made an investigation, nor, in fact, did he ever reach his destination.
   Clayton was the type of Englishman that one likes best to associate with the noblest monuments of historic achievement upon a thousand victorious battlefields: a strong, virile man, mentally, morally, and physically.
   In stature he was above the average height; his eyes were grey, his features regular and strong; his carriage that of perfect, robust health influenced by his years of army training.
   Political ambition had caused him to seek transference from the army to the Colonial Office and so we find him, still young, entrusted with a delicate and important commission in the service of the Queen.
   When he received this appointment he was both elated and appalled. The preferment seemed to him in the nature of a well-merited reward for painstaking and intelligent service, and as a stepping stone to posts of greater importance and responsibility; but, on the other hand, he had been married to the Hon. Alice Rutherford for scarce three months, and it was the thought of taking this fair young girl into the dangers and isolation of tropical Africa that appalled him.
   For her sake he would have refused the appointment, but she would not have it so. Instead she insisted that he accept, and, indeed, take her with him.
   There were mothers and brothers and sisters, and aunts and cousins to express various opinions on the subject, but as to what they severally advised history is silent.
   We know only that on a bright May morning in 1888, John, Lord Greystoke, and Lady Alice sailed from Dover on their way to Africa.
   A month later they arrived at Freetown where they chartered a small sailing vessel, the Fuwalda, which was to bear them to their final destination.