domingo, 24 de novembro de 2013

Conteúdo das Integradas de Inglês - 3º Trimestre

Avaliações Integradas de Inglês – Prof. Robson
(3º Trimestre)

Prezados Alunos: saudações!

Eis aqui os textos, tirinhas e infográficos que serão utilizados na Prova Integrada.
Vocês podem estudar por aqui. Não haverá a possibilidade de uso de tradução durante a prova. Também não será permitida a utilização do dicionário de inglês, conforme o costume.

Grato pela atenção.

Robson Gimenes, Prof.

6º Ano (INGLÊS)

Compreensão textual
Receita Culinária
Verb To Be - Passado (was, were)

Strawberry Jellies

1. Ask a grown-up to put 6 tsp boiling water into a jug. Sprinkle on the gelatine, then whisk carefully until it dissolves. 
2. Pour in the juice and whisk, making sure it's all mixed in. 
3. Pull the green hulls out of the strawberries. Again ask an adult to use a knife and cut them into slices or small chunks. 
4. Put some pieces of strawberry into 6 glasses leaving a few to decorate at the end. They should be full but with plenty of room around them. 
5. Pour the juice into 6 glasses, filling them almost to the top. Put them on a plate or tray in the fridge to set. They will take about 4 hours to set. 
6. When the jellies are set, decorate with whipped cream and extra strawberries. 

7º Ano (INGLÊS)

Compreensão textual
Futuro (will)

TEXT I - Spot the Nanodog asked fifth-graders at Elon Elementary School in North Carolina to write what they think the future will bring. […]
Ross S. - Teleportation; hologram TV; tastebud scanners that tell you what you want to eat; sea suits that go below 100,000,000 feet; Rocket boots.
Barrington L. - Soon to come: Time machines. Flying cars. Jet packs that really work and are easy to use.
Jacob T. - Robots doing all the chores; flying cars; everything is free because we can make it out of thin air with special machines.
Natalie K. - When grocery shopping, everything in the buggy will ring itself up. No more car accidents and less traffic because cars will fly.

TEXT II - Kat and Sloane posted their top 10 online rules for Internet safety. That is one of them about photos:
Photos: Don’t share photos of yourself with anyone you don’t know. Don’t share provocative photos of yourself or friends – once they are ‘out there’ you cannot control who sees them. If someone makes you uncomfortable by asking for photos or asking you what you look like or personal questions, tell your parents, the police or contact


 TEXT V - I began my career at Guide Dogs for the Blind (GDB) in 1996 in the training department with basic dog training skills. After a year of working in the kennels as an instructor assistant, I worked my way through a three-year apprenticeship where GDB taught me how to train guides, work with the visually impaired, basic O&M skills and health-related issues surrounding our client base.
At the end of my apprenticeship in 2000 I had to take the California State Board exam for dog guide instructors and received my license. I am required by the state to maintain the license and attend at least eight hours of continuing education each year.
After being licensed for five years I became a Master Instructor and eventually made a lateral departmental move to be the Pacific Northwest graduate field manager. In this position my focus shifted from dog training to assisting our clients support.

8º Ano (INGLÊS)

Compreensão textual
Presente Perfeito
Passado Simples

Text I 

Text II - Planned Experiences (On the horizon!)
  • Himalaya Backpacking trip with the National Outdoor Leadership School
  • Language immersion in Costa Rica
Prospective Experiences (Still dreaming…)
  • Trail 1/2 Marathon
  • Trip to Ireland with my mom
  • Ballroom dancing
  • Publish a book
  • White water rafting
  • Hang-gliding
  • Extended yoga/meditation retreat
  • Snowshoeing
Previous Experiences (Been there, done that!)
  • 1/2 Marathon in San Francisco
  • Scuba diving
  • Skydiving (x2)
  • Aikido
  • Muay Thai Kickboxing
  • Goju Ryu Karate
  • Snowboarding
Text III - Do you run away when you hear a bee buzzing? Many people do. A bee sting hurts and some people are allergic to bee venom. But did you know that bees are very important to humans? Honeybees do more than just make honey. They fly around and pollinate flowers, plants, and trees. Our fruits, nuts, and vegetables rely on these pollinators. One third of America's food supply is pollinated by the honeybee.
Honeybees pollinate plants that give us fruit and vegetables.
Have you seen or heard a honeybee lately? Bees are mysteriously disappearing in many parts of the world. Most people don't know about this problem. It is called Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Some North American beekeepers lost 80% of their hives from 2006-2008. Bees in Italy and Australia are disappearing too.

Text IV - Pollution is caused when harmful or poisonous substances are released or found in the air, rivers, seas, animals, plants or even our bodies. […]
But all is not lost. We can all learn a few little tips to help protect the environment and its future:
How to help:
  • Don’t drop litter. Animals can mistake litter for food. Litter can end up in rivers and block drains, or in the sea and be eaten by fish. Also, some litter will stay around for thousands of years!
  • Save it! All of the electricity saving tips in the above section will also help reduce pollution.
  • On your bike. Instead of taking the car, get your bicycle out or take the ‘shoelace express’ - also known as walking.
  • Pleasing product. Many household cleaning products contain harmful chemicals which are washed down the drain. Encourage your parents to buy eco-friendly products or even make your own from natural substances like vinegar and lemon juice.
  • Detectives. If you spot pollution, such as oil on the beach, report it to the local council. If you suspect a stream is polluted, report it to the Environment Agency.
 Text V - Kayla, 17, Thomasville, NC

"My ex and I dated for three years, and the breakup was rough! At first, I sulked and was depressed, but then I realized that was only hurting me, not him. I came to the conclusion that focusing on being my age and not being serious was the best way to go! I kept my friends and family super-close. I also found it's the best time to focus on your schoolwork! Make sure you better yourself, because being sad and depressed doesn't hurt him, it hurts you."

9º Ano (INGLÊS)

Compreensão textual



 TEXT IV - First winner of the Brit Awards Critics' Choice (2008).
Resides with her mother in South London.
Is influenced by the music of Etta James and Ella Fitzgerald.
Graduated from BRIT School (2006).
English soul and jazz singer.

Personal quotes
I love food and hate exercise. I don't have time to work out. I don't want to be on the cover of Playboy or Vogue. I want to be on the cover of Rolling Stone or Q. I'm not a trend-setter. I'm a singer. I'd rather weigh a ton and make an amazing album than look like Nicole Richie and do a shit album. My aim in life is never to be skinny.

 TEXT V - Although Bob Kane achieved renown for creating the fictional superhero Batman, he and others have acknowledged the contributions of Bill Finger for fleshing the character out, writing many of his early stories, and creating the character's origin. Many other comic book creators (writers, artists, and sometimes editors who contributed important ideas or altered how the character would be presented) have contributed to the character's history since his introduction in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. This list identifies some who made notable contributions with enduring impact. […]

1ª Série (INGLÊS)

Compreensão textual
Presente Simples (Simple Present)
Passado Simples (Simple Past)

Text I - Out of all the clichés my mother ever told me, “Honesty is the best policy” is the one I disliked the most – mainly because it was so true. Honesty is the cornerstone of any relationship. Friends, family, significant others, business associates… it doesn’t matter what type of relationship, honesty matters. Each interaction we begin throughout our day is based on the (5) assumption that the other party is being honest. Unfortunately, people as a rule are never 100% honest, and dishonesty is often played up in the media as acceptable and expected behaviour.
Three’s Company is the perfect example of a sitcom that portrays situations where misunderstandings are perpetuated by dishonesty. But if television were real, Jack Tripper and (10) gang would most likely be regulars on Jerry Springer and Judge Judy. Then there are movies like The Truth About Cats & Dogs where a girl tells one of those “harmless” white lies to someone she thinks she’ll never meet, and then spends the rest of the movie telling more and more lies to cover up the first one. Of course the truth comes out in the end and everything works out, but if it had been real life, that guy would have run like hell. In real life, everything (15) doesn’t always work out with no one emotionally damaged by the lies.
In starting a new relationship, honesty is very much expected from others. We keep fingers crossed that the person sitting across the table from us at the restaurant on the first date is telling the truth when they tell us about their lives. But do we really believe everything they say? See, in expecting honesty from others, we tend miss a very important step: trust. Growing up (20) watching shows where people lie and it still works out, being told as children not to believe everything television tells us, or the societal belief that certain professions such as lawyers and politicians are made up of liars… all these things seem to have instilled a subconscious inclination to distrust. Of course we’ve all seen relationships go down the drain due to lack of trust. Was he really faithful to me when he and the guys drove up to Chicago to catch a Cubs (25) game? Are she and that one guy really just friends? Distrust and doubt: they can destroy just about anything.
Mom sure was right. Honesty truly is the best policy; however, we can’t be in a relationship and expect a person to be honest with us 100% of the time if we don’t want to give that person our trust. Sure, trusting a person is a very hard thing to do. But if we want a relationship, any kind of (30) relationship with a person, it’s something we must do. After all, an extension of trust is the key to honesty’s door.
Text II - The term "urban" means "from the city", which is derived from the Latin word urbanus. It is associated with art that is created by artist living, depicting, or experiencing city life. The subject is often people living city life and also city buildings and transportation. Urban Art in its rawest form is graffiti. The term graffiti comes from the Italian word graffio which means "to scratch". Graffiti is associated with gang related tagging of territory and a means of gaining attention but it is also associated with humans need to express themselves. Some of the earliest forms of graffiti are the tribal inscriptions of early man on stone hence, the definition "to scratch". One of my favourite pieces of Urban Artwork is a piece that was done by the African American artist, Ernie Barnes.

2ª Série (INGLÊS)

Compreensão textual
Gerúndio (-ing)

Text I“Being female is a matter of birth, being a woman is a matter of age, but being a lady is a matter of choice.”  
Being female does not guarantee a girl will grow up to be a lady and the current self-absorbed culture is not likely to model or promote the qualities of a lady. It is a process for a girl to become a woman and develop into a lady. Parents invest a great deal of time and resources to develop their daughter’s academic, athletic, or artistic talent, with little or no thought as to what is required for her to mature into a lady.
A lady understands that her appearance, behaviour, and way of communicating provide others with valuable insight into her character. She knows that her true beauty is not acquired at a make-up counter, with a new outfit, or by following the latest Hollywood trend. Rather, she understands true beauty is first inward. A lady understands that her real strength is not found in trying to be like a man, but rather, in being gracious, thoughtful, kind, intelligent, self-assured, and poised.
The traits of a lady include:

  1. A lady is generous with her time, wisdom, and resources. She is a woman of her word and follows through with her commitments, whatever the cost. She willingly serves others and extends a hand to those in need. She manages her priorities and time well – understanding that she can only serve others after she has taken care of herself.
  2. A lady possesses a positive outlook on life.  Her humour, wisdom, and consistent encouragement attract others to her.
  3. A lady is a lifelong learner. She maintains a teachable posture and embraces change for the better. She does not compare herself to others, but embraces her strengths and accepts her weaknesses.
  4. A lady models civility in how she treats others. She demonstrates respect, restraint, and personal responsibility in her appearance, behaviour, and communication. She is honourable, and values and respects others.
  5. A lady is well-mannered and knows what is appropriate. She is able to navigate various social and professional settings with ease and proficiency. She embraces all people – those from other cultures, as well as individuals from various social and economic backgrounds.
  6. A lady possesses a strong work ethic. She takes pride in her labour at home and in the community, and strives to give her very best. She is trustworthy, loyal, and people speak well of her.
  7. A lady is poised, graceful, and confident. Her posture and body language communicate a strong personal presence.
  8. A lady is well-dressed. She knows how to select clothing that is modest, age appropriate, within her budget, and perfect for the occasion. She is well-groomed, practices good hygiene, and maintains her health. She understands that her personal appearance – the way she chooses to dress, groom, and carry herself – communicates instantly to others who she is.
  9. A lady is well-spoken and a generous listener. She knows how to effectively connect with others and communicate her message. Her words are kind, tactful, and free from gossip. She is gracious and inclusive.
  10. A lady manages her home and the needs of her family. She creates a welcome, peaceful, loving, and nourishing environment – a safe shelter from the storms of life. Her actions reflect whom she has chosen to be rather than base them upon the opinions of others.
Our society is a case in point for the need to embrace the understandable and, ultimately, achievable principles of being a lady.
The art of being a lady is relevant for today and it is accessible to every woman – young and old.

Text IITaking part in sports is good all round for young teens: physically, socially, and mentally, according to a new study by Dr. Keith Zullig and Rebecca White from West Virginia University in the US. Their research shows that middle-school teenagers who are physically active and play on sports teams are more satisfied with their life and feel healthier.

Zullig and White's paper is published online in Springer's journal Applied Research in Quality of Life.
Although the benefits of physical activity are well documented among teenagers, middle school children are an understudied population in adolescent physical activity research. The authors explored the relationship between physical activity (including sports participation), life satisfaction and self-rated health concurrently, for the first time, among 245 middle school students in grades 7 and 8. The 12- to 14-year-old boys and girls were asked to fill in questionnaires assessing their physical activity levels, their overall satisfaction with life and asking them to describe their own health.

In boys, participation in vigorous activity had no effect on either life satisfaction or self-rated health. In girls, those who had taken part in vigorous activity in the last week were significantly more satisfied with their life compared to girls who had not, but participation in vigorous activity had no effect on their self-rated health.
Playing on a sports team was linked to higher life satisfaction in both boys and girls. In addition, boys were five times more likely, and girls 30 times more likely, to describe their health as fair/poor when they were not playing on a sports team.
The authors conclude: "Our study demonstrates the benefits of youth sports participation on self-rated health and life satisfaction among young youth at a critical juncture in adolescent development. Our findings suggest that sports team participation may enhance school connectedness, social support and bonding among friends and teammates.

Text III - Playing violent video games can sharpen our focus, reasoning and decision-making skills. But do we really need the weapons?

  • A body of recent research shows that playing certain video games improves vision, attention, spatial reasoning and decision making.
  • More than 90 percent of children play video games, and adults do, too: the average gamer's age is 33 years.
  • The games that have the most powerful neurological effects are the ones parents hate the most: violent first-person shooters.
I am in an overgrown lot leaning against an eight-foot-tall shipping container. I look both ways, weighing my options. A man with an assault rifle is looking for me, just as I am looking for him. Hoping for a better vantage point, I run toward the abandoned car to my right. A metallic bang rings out as my opponent's shot hits the wall I have just left. I dodge around the next container, then circle behind it. Raising my M16, I peer through the scope as I run. There he is! I hit the track pad of my laptop hard and fast, but my aim is wobbly. I miss. He spins, fires, and I'm dead.
So ended my introduction to first-person-shooter video games. Clearly, I was not very good. With practice, I would probably get better. What is less obvious is that a decade of research has shown that if I spent a few more hours playing Call of Duty, I could improve more than my aim and the life expectancy of my avatar. Aspects of my vision, attention, spatial reasoning and decision making would all change for the better.

3ª Série (INGLÊS)

Compreensão textual

Text I - In 1994, the Las Vegas police reported a disturbing series of crimes along the Vegas strip. The first victim in this wave was an Ohio man in town for a sales convention. At the bar in his hotel, the man happened to strike up a conversation with an attractive young woman. According to the man, the two hit it off, sharing several drinks over the course of a couple hours. At some point, the man blacked out, and when he came to, he found himself lying in a hotel bathtub, covered in ice. There was a phone resting on the floor beside the tub, with an attached note that said, "Call 911or you will die." He called an ambulance and was rushed to the hospital, where the doctors informed him that he had undergone massive surgery. One of his kidneys had been removed, apparently by a gang selling human organs on the black market. Following this occurrence, many similar crimes were reported, leading Las Vegas police to issue warnings to travellers visiting the city.
There is a good chance that you have heard this story, or some variation of it. News of the Vegas "organ harvesters" has been passed on by thousands and thousands of people over the course of 10 years. It has been relayed by word of mouth, e-mail and even printed fliers. But there is absolutely no evidence that any such thing ever occurred, in Las Vegas or anywhere else. This fictional story is a quintessential urban legend, an incredible tale passed from one person to another as truth.
In this article, we'll look at urban legends to see what they are, where they come from and why they spread so quickly. We'll also explore some ideas regarding the social significance of urban legends, as well as take a look at how the stories have changed over the years.
Generally speaking, an urban legend is any modern, fictional story, told as truth, that reaches a wide audience by being passed from person to person. Urban legends are often false, but not always. A few turn out to be largely true, and a lot of them were inspired by an actual event but evolved into something different in their passage from person to person. More often than not, it is not possible to trace an urban legend back to its original source -- they seem to come from nowhere.
Text II

Text IIIThere are many ways to prepare for a test or to do an assignment. Good study habits are a must for anyone who wishes to achieve great success in their courses.

Create an appropriate study environment. You will need limited noise, a lot of sunlight, a tidy surface, and comfortable furniture. Find a quiet place to study where you won't be bothered. This is very important and should be given great care in doing.

Get everything you need before you sit down to study. Pencils, pens, notebooks, college ruled paper, your laptop, textbooks, etc.
 Develop a schedule. All students should keep a schedule of classes, assignments and other key dates. As part of that schedule, they should set aside specific time for studying and project work. That way, they're less likely to find themselves scrambling to complete a project at the last minute or cramming the night before a big test. The schedule should also set aside time for non-school activities like sports. In fact, the more comprehensive the schedule, the more efficient most students will be in completing their schoolwork.

Develop a calm attitude. Be calm and patient with yourself. Nobody learns anything straight away.

Take notes in any classes that you have. You can even take notes at work. It may be easier to use abbreviations for common words, only record important information (and/or key words), use clear headers to organize information and use pictures/diagrams to demonstrate. Highlight or underline key points in your material.

Start with the homework that is hardest to you. For example, if you're taking chemistry, math, English, and Spanish. Start with Chemistry and end with English. If you start with the hardest subject, your brain will be fresh.

Avoid distractions. If you have family members that distract you, politely ask them to leave so you can continue with your assignments. If you have kids, this might not be possible. Make sure the TV and radio are off. If you need background noise, classical music might be of interest.

Take frequent breaks. Go for a walk, ride your bike, or be with family. When you take frequent breaks, you find that you aren't boggled with the stress of homework and you can't wait to get back to your assignments later.

Develop effective memorization techniques. You can use lists when having to memorize several things e.g. (formulae). Flash cards are good for memorizing large amounts of grouped information.

Develop critical reading skills. As students move into higher grades, they're assigned larger and more complex reading assignments. Poor reading skills or an inability to read for important information will make these assignments a burden and undermine overall academic success. Students need to deliberately learn to read for key information. If reading skills are weak, it's important for the student to seek help improving them; otherwise performance in many subjects would be impacted.

Focus on the areas that require the most attention. Study things more if you have a hard time doing them.

Develop a study group. This way you can quiz each other and learn things from each other. Ask questions to yourself. Asking questions should lead to emphasis on the what, why, how, when, who and where of study content. Ask yourself questions while you read or study. Answering them will help to make sense of the material, and aid you in remembering it, because the process will make an impression on you. Those things that make impressions are more meaningful, and therefore more easily remembered.

Make sure you get enough sleep. Staying up late studying is not a good idea. Lack of sleep prevents you from concentrating and reduces your ability to remember what you have learnt.

terça-feira, 19 de novembro de 2013

Dia da Bandeira e as Bandeiras Históricas do Brasil


A Bandeira do Brasil foi estabelecida a 19 de novembro de 1889, quatro dias após a Proclamação da República. O modelo atual é uma atualização da Bandeira Imperial. Os republicanos tiraram o brasão imperial e colocaram o losango amarelo, com o círculo azul e as 27 estrelas na cor branca.

 As Bandeiras Históricas do Brasil
Bandeira da Ordem de Cristo
Bandeira do Reino de Portugal
Bandeira de d. João III - Período Colonial
Bandeira Real à época do Domínio Espanhol sobre Portugal
Bandeira da Restauração - Reinado de d. João VI - Fim do Domínio Espanhol
Bandeira do Principado do Brasil
Bandeira de d. Pedro II de Portugal
Bandeira do Reino de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves
Bandeira do Regime Constitucional
Bandeira do Império do Brasil
Bandeira da República (15 a 19 de novembro de 1889)
Bandeira Nacional (a partir de 19 de novembro de 1889)
Uma curiosidade 

À época do Império, o Amarelo referia-se à Casa de Habsburgo da Áustria (homenagem à dona Leopoldina, nossa primeira Imperatriz) e o Verde, à Casa de Bragança (homenagem a dom Pedro I, nosso primeiro Imperador). Com o advento da República, a informação foi atualizada desta maneira: o Verde representando as matas, o Amarelo as riquezas, o Azul o céu sempre límpido e o Branco a Paz que deve pairar sobre o nosso amado país.

Hino à Bandeira Nacional do Brasil

Hoje é 19 de novembro: o dia de nossa Bandeira Nacional, um dos quatro símbolos nacionais. 

Em 1906, poucos anos após o estabelecimento de seu formato atual, surgiu o Hino à Bandeira do Brasil. A letra é do poeta Olavo Bilac (1865-1918) e a música do prof. Francisco Braga (1868-1945). 

A partir de um pedido do então prefeito do Rio de Janeiro, Francisco Pereira Passos, começou a ser executado na Prefeitura do Rio de Janeiro. Depois, passou a ser cantado nas escolas e, mais tarde, nas instalações militares e,por fim, acabou por se estender aos outros estados.

Infelizmente, hoje as escolas (em sua maioria) não o executam mais. Ainda bem que nas dependências militares ainda é lembrado e executado, ao menos neste dia cívico, 19 de novembro!

"Salve, lindo pendão da esperança,
Salve, símbolo augusto da paz!
Tua nobre presença à lembrança
A grandeza da Pátria nos traz."


Robson Gimenes, Prof.

Hino à Bandeira Nacional
Letra: Olavo Bilac
Música: Francisco Braga

Salve, lindo pendão da esperança,
Salve, símbolo augusto da paz!
Tua nobre presença à lembrança
A grandeza da Pátria nos traz.

Recebe o afeto que se encerra
Em nosso peito juvenil,
Querido símbolo da terra,
Da amada terra do Brasil!

Em teu seio formoso retratas
Este céu de puríssimo azul,
A verdura sem par destas matas,
E o esplendor do Cruzeiro do Sul.

Recebe o afeto que se encerra
Em nosso peito juvenil,
Querido símbolo da terra,
Da amada terra do Brasil!

Contemplando o teu vulto sagrado,
Compreendemos o nosso dever;
E o Brasil, por seus filhos amado,
Poderoso e feliz há de ser.

Recebe o afeto que se encerra
Em nosso peito juvenil,
Querido símbolo da terra,
Da amada terra do Brasil!

Sobre a imensa Nação Brasileira,
Nos momentos de festa ou de dor,
Paira sempre, sagrada bandeira,
Pavilhão da Justiça e do Amor!

Recebe o afeto que se encerra
Em nosso peito juvenil,
Querido símbolo da terra,
Da amada terra do Brasil!

sábado, 28 de setembro de 2013

Como limpar o celular?

Você sabe como limpar o celular?
(Uma higienização correta e completa de um dispositivo celular)

Em 2013, uma pesquisa foi realizada na Inglaterra e ficou constatado que um telefone celular pode conter mais bactérias que os assentos dos vasos sanitários, as solas dos calçados e as maçanetas das portas.
O motivo de tanta sujeira está no fato de levarmos o celular a todos os lugares e, principalmente, esquecermos de limpá-lo com uma frequência mínima. Dizem que a limpeza semanal é suficiente. Logicamente que é bem variável, pois em ambiente com possíveis indícios de contaminação (hospitais, laboratórios etc.), a limpeza deve ser diária, se possível.

A limpeza
Você irá utilizar um pouco de detergente, álcool isopropílico (a 70%), pano, cotonete e lenço de papel ou algodão.

- Desligue o aparelho.
- Remova a sujeira do teclado com água e detergente.
- Nas partes internas, use pano ou cotonete seco. Nada úmido nos circuitos!
- Feito isso, passe um algodão ou lenço de papel embebido em álcool e, de preferência, espere uns dez minutos. O álcool logo evapora e não há possibilidade de danificar o dispositivo.
- Monte (feche) o aparelho e pode usá-lo.

Seguindo esses passos, com certeza e com frequência, você vai ter um aparelho sempre limpo e livre de bactérias e outras coisas contaminações normais do dia a dia.
Tags: Higienização de Celular, Smartphone e Tablet; Limpeza de Celular, Smartphone e Tablet; Bactérias no Celular; Como Limpar o Celular; Como limpar o Smartphone.

sábado, 24 de agosto de 2013

Os verdadeiros líderes não têm o aplauso do seu tempo, mas o têm da história

"Nas veias dos demagogos não corre o leite da ternura humana e, sim,
o vinagre da burrice ou o veneno da hipocrisia."
Roberto Campos (1917-2001)

Há governantes, líderes comunitários, empresários que vão além do seu tempo, deixando para trás uma maioria míope e reivindicadora. Têm postura de estadistas. São alvos da incompreensão, maledicência, isolamento e agressões. Num movimento pendular sobre suas cabeças, a espada de Dâmocles oscila entre o desagradável e o plausível, este, porém, muitas vezes inconseqüente.

Quando os bons dirigentes propõem mudanças, encontram uma resistência feroz por parte de muitos e o apoio tíbio de uns poucos. Confortam-se com o dever cumprido e com o julgamento da posteridade. Sim, a História

essa "juíza imparcial" - repara injustiças, mas tem o péssimo hábito de andar tão devagar que raramente alcança os grandes líderes em vida.

Há um descompasso entre o aplauso do seu tempo e o aplauso da História. Destarte, o populismo e a demagogia aliciam os líderes fracos como o canto da sereia. "Ainda não descobri a maneira infalível de governar. Mas aprendi a fórmula certa de fracassar: querer agradar a todos, ao mesmo tempo" - discursava apropriadamente John F. Kennedy (1917-1963), meses antes de ser abatido por tiros certeiros em Dallas.

Em 44 a.C., Caio Júlio César, o mais renomado imperador romano, foi atraiçoado por 23 punhaladas, vítima de uma conspiração. Suas palavras derradeiras demonstram antes de tudo um coração dilacerado pela ingratidão, especialmente de Brutus, filho único e adotivo: "Tu quoque, Brutus, fili mi!" (Até tu, Brutus, filho meu!).

"Você pode enganar todo o povo durante algum tempo e parte do povo durante todo o tempo, mas não pode enganar todo o povo todo o tempo" - se faz oportuno Abraham Lincoln, o mais venerado presidente dos EUA. Poucos desconhecem as suas vicissitudes: perdeu para deputado estadual, deputado federal, senador e foi assassinado por um fanático sulista em um teatro de Washington. Lincoln costumava repetir que, se fosse responder a todas as críticas que lhe eram dirigidas, não trataria de mais nada.

Winston Churchill, ao assumir o governo de coalizão em 1940, proclamou em seu histórico discurso: "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, sweat and tears" (Eu não tenho nada a oferecer, a não ser sangue, trabalho, suor e lágrimas). Churchill, hodiernamente considerado o maior líder do século XX, conheceu o gosto amargo do ostracismo e da ingratidão dos ingleses: sofreu derrotas em quatro eleições.

E o que dizer do maior estadista indiano? Para Mahatma Gandhi, a pobreza é a pior forma de violência. Acusado de traidor por fanáticos hindus, em 1948 foi vitimado pelas balas de um deles. Logo ele, o apóstolo da não-violência, que costumava catequizar: "Olho por olho e o mundo acabará inteiramente cego".

Também se faz apropriada uma breve incursão no reino animal. Em algumas regiões inóspitas da Ásia, há manadas de cavalos selvagens que galopam céleres as pradarias e montanhas guiadas por um deles. É o cavalo líder e, quando este expõe os demais a uma situação de grande risco de vida, toda a tropa golpeia o líder com coices e patadas.

Um bando de macacos sempre escolhe um líder-olheiro, experiente e vivaz. Este é severamente punido se for negligente, não alertando a tempo a iminência de um perigo ou razia.

Se os animais são implacáveis com os erros e omissões de suas lideranças, nós, racionais, não deixamos por menos: defenestramos governantes. Collor e De la Rúa são os exemplos mais eloqüentes.

A presente crise argentina enseja reflexões, em face das eleições brasileiras em outubro de 2002. Nossos vizinhos têm um passado marcado pelo populismo, corrupção e impunidade. A nossa história também registra essa mazela, mas com menos ênfase.

Parafraseando Dante, os piores lugares do inferno deveriam ser reservados a esses governantes, pois geram miséria, inflação e comprometem gerações. O conspícuo filósofo grego Aristóteles (384 a.C.-322 a.C.) já advertia que "a demagogia é a perversão da democracia".

Com presumíveis 14 candidatos à Presidência brasileira, não sei o que vem pela frente. Só espero que seja pela frente, completa o humorista. É indispensável que o próximo presidente mantenha a sanidade da moeda. A inflação, de acordo com a tese publicada por Joelmir Beting, é a principal motivadora de desigualdades. Um massacre social consentido que durou 30 anos: 1,1 quatrilhão por cento de inflação no período de 1964 a 1994! Não tendo conta em banco, os mais pobres não podiam usufruir os benefícios da correção monetária.

No governo FHC, as desigualdades sociais - que a bem da verdade é obra de décadas ou séculos - pouco foram mitigadas. E paradoxalmente nunca se investiu tanto. São 23 milhões de miseráveis (14,5% da população). Destes, 45% têm menos de 15 anos. Entretanto, avançamos muito no plano econômico, institucional, político, educacional. Melhoramos bastante quanto à auto-estima, expectativa de futuro, respeito aos contratos e punição dos corruptos. Desde 1995, o país foi atacado a bombordo e a estibordo por oito crises internacionais. E superou a mais feroz: a cambial de 1999.

O atual presidente não norteou seus atos na busca da popularidade fugaz. Embora pequeno, é emblemático um episódio. O diretor de uma estatal hesitava em tomar uma decisão desagradável, mas necessária. FHC foi incisivo: "Se você não o fizer, seu sucessor o fará".

Autor: Jacir J. Venturi
Diretor de escola, cidadão Honorário de Curitiba, autor de livros e professor da UFPR (durante 26 anos) e PUC-PR (durante 11 anos)  

quarta-feira, 31 de julho de 2013

Estudo revela que cantar ajuda no aprendizado de língua estrangeira

Pessoas que cantam para aprender línguas estrangeiras fixam o vocabulário com mais facilidade e por mais tempo. Falantes do inglês que participaram do estudo aprendem húngaro com mais facilidade.

Um estudo realizado pela Escola de Música da Universidade de Edimburgo, na Escócia, concluiu que cantar em uma língua estrangeira ajuda no aprendizado desse idioma. A pesquisa trabalhou com o idioma húngaro, considerado um dos mais difíceis e diferente para os europeus.

Para o estudo, vinte adultos de língua materna inglesa foram divididos em três grupos. Após ouvir frases em húngaro, um grupo as repetia cantando, o outro imitava o som ritmicamente e o último apenas as falava normalmente.

A pesquisa mostrou que o grupo cantante obteve o dobro do sucesso que o grupo que apenas repetia as frases. Além disso, os que aprenderam cantando também conseguiram se recordar das sentenças mais precisamente e por um período de tempo maior.

"O estudo fornece a primeira evidência experimental que o método escutar e repetir cantando pode auxiliar o aprendizado de um idioma, além de abrir portas para futuras pesquisas nessa área", afirma Karen Ludke, uma das autoras.

Para Ludke, outra questão a ser estudada é se a melodia serve como uma ponte para a memória, auxiliando na fixação de palavras e frases estrangeiras com mais facilidade. O estudo foi publicado na revista científica Memory&Cognition.

Benefícios para o cérebro

Outros estudos já demonstraram o benefício do aprendizado de uma segunda língua. Pesquisadores defendem que quanto mais cedo for o contato com um idioma estrangeiro, melhor será o desenvolvimento da proficiência em uma ou mais línguas. Além disso, os estudantes mais jovens ainda possuem a capacidade de adquirir pronúncia e entonação quase como um nativo.

As crianças que aprendem uma língua estrangeira no início na infância demonstram certas vantagens cognitivas sobre as demais. Uma pesquisa realizada no Canadá mostra que aqueles que são bilíngues entendem mais cedo o conceito de "permanência do objeto", ou seja, que um objeto permanece o mesmo apesar de receber um nome diferente em outro idioma.

Estudos mostram ainda que a aprendizagem de uma língua estrangeira aumenta as habilidades de pensamento crítico, criatividade e flexibilidade em crianças pequenas.

Autoria: Clarissa Neher 

Fonte: - Acesso em 31/7/2013

sábado, 15 de junho de 2013

Conteúdo das Intermediárias de Inglês - 2º Trimestre

Avaliações Intermediárias de Inglês – Prof. Robson
(2º Trimestre)

6º Ano (INGLÊS) - 27/6/2013
Compreensão Textual
Preposições de Lugar
There is / There are

7º Ano (INGLÊS) - 27/6/2013
Compreensão Textual
Presente Simples (DO/DOES)
Presente Contínuo
Passado Simples

8º Ano (INGLÊS) - 26/6/2013
Compreensão Textual
Passado Simples
Pronomes Interrogativos (Wh-questions)
Passado Contínuo
Verbos Modais

9º Ano (INGLÊS) - 27/6/2013
Compreensão Textual
Passado Simples
Passado Contínuo
Futuro Simples (Will)

1ª Série (INGLÊS) - 24/6/2013
Compreensão Textual
Presente Simples (DO/DOES)
Verbos Modais

2ª Série (INGLÊS) - 24/6/2013

Compreensão Textual
Presente Perfeito
Discursos Direto e Indireto

3ª Série (INGLÊS) - 24/6/2013

Compreensão Textual
Tempos Verbais: Tipos de Passado
Tempos Verbais: Tipos de Presente
Tempos Verbais: Tipos de Futuro

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